The grave accent indicates that the speaker should start somewhat low and drop slightly in tone, with the voice becoming increasingly breathy. The hook indicates in Northern Vietnamese that the speaker should start somewhat low and fall, but in Southern Vietnamese that the speaker should start somewhat low and fall, then rise as when asking a question in English.
However, it's important to know that Viet Nam has a long history -- one that goes back long, long before there was any "Viet Nam War. Further, in order to fully understand the history and consequences of the Viet Nam War, it's critical to first understand Viet Nam's history.
She bore him eggs, out of which sons were born. They soon established a nation that stretched from southern China to northern Indonesia. However, the King and the Princess became convinced that their different origins would ultimately make them unhappy, so they separated.
Princess Au Co took 50 of the sons with her back into the mountains while King Lac Long Quan took the other 50 sons and ruled over the lowlands. After the King died in B. This legend symbolizes the importance of uniting the two main geographic and cultural areas of Viet Nam -- the mountains representing the north and lowlands representing the south in forming one united country.
It is a theme that gets played out repeatedly in Viet Nam's history and is also symbolized by the spelling of "Viet Nam" as two words, rather than one.
In fact, spelling Viet Nam using two words has a long tradition and is in keeping with the country's pre-colonized history. It wasn't until Viet Nam was colonized by France that its name was shortened to one word.
The Hung dynasty produced 18 kings, each of whom ruled for years. At this time, the nation was named Van Lang. This dynasty was then overthrown by a neighboring king in B.
He established the new kingdom of Au Lac and built his capital at Phuc An, whose remains still exist today in the village of Co Loa, located west of Hanoi. Fifty years later, a Chinese general, Trieu Da, conquered the kingdom and formed the new nation of Nam Viet. Many scholars and Vietnamese consider this to be the end of historical legend and the true beginning of modern Vietnamese history.
Finally, in B. A Tradition of Resistance is Born Thus began the Vietnamese people's tradition of fighting to remain free and independent. For the next 19 centuries, the people of Viet Nam continually struggled against the Chinese for their independence. The first Vietnamese rebellion occurred in 39 A.
They successfully drove out the Chinese and the nation lived free from Chinese rule until three years later when Viet Nam was reconquered.
This next period of Chinese domination lasted untilwhen a Vietnamese scholar, Ly Bon again drove out the Chinese rulers, only to have Viet Nam reinvaded a few years later.
The Vietnamese people would continue to resist the rule of China which renamed the nation An Nam. The Chinese introduced many important and beneficial agricultural, technical, and educational innovations to benefit of the Vietnamese people.
However, the imposition of Chinese culture, customs, language, political institutions, and at times cruel oppression and exploitation of the nation ultimately crystallized the Vietnamese people's fierce desire to be free and independent, at all costs.
This desire was finally realized inas the Tang dynasty in China was falling into decline. The Vietnamese used this as an opportunity to again fight for their independence. General Ngo Quyen successfully drove out the Chinese rulers and established the first of the "Great Dynasties" of Viet Nam that managed to remain largely independent of all foreign powers for the next years.
Dinh Dynasty Established by the dominant feudal lord who finally unified the country. Early Le Dynasty Pronounced "Lay. During this dynasty, Buddhism was established as the dominant religion of Viet Nam.
Ly Dynasty Pronounced "Lee.
This inspired him to move the capital to where he dreamt the dragon first rising out from the ground, in the city of Thang Long, which was later renamed "Hanoi. Tran Dynasty This dynasty successfully fought off the invasion attempts of the larger Mongol army, led by Kubali Khan.
Marco Polo also briefly traveled through Viet Nam in Ho Dynasty Toward the end of this dynasty, Ming invaders from China again briefly occupied the country. Late Le Dynasty Under the leadership of Le Loi, a resistance movement was formed and successfully used guerrilla warfare tactics to again drive out the Chinese invaders.
This strategy involved using brief but frequent surprise attacks targeting the enemy's weakest points and avoiding direct combat against superior enemy forces -- a tactic that would be used successfully throughout Viet Nam's early and modern history.
This period is also considered to be the "golden era" of Viet Nam. Trinh and Nguyen Rulers The nation was divided in half in after numerous civil wars. During this period, the Le emperors had little real power.In fact I would say that with the addition of tones through the use of the Latin alphabet, and using the diacritical marks available using the Vietnamese modified Latin alphabet, written Vietnamese has become much more precise and understandable.
Vietnam Geography. Vietnam occupies the eastern coast of the Southeast Asian peninsula. It is bordered by the South China Sea on the west and south, China to . In Vietnam: A New History, Christopher Goscha, an American-born history professor at the Universite du Quebec a Montreal, who has published several books and articles dealing with Indochina and Vietnam, utilizes new research and new perspectives in a .
The Vietnamese Writing System. Modern Vietnamese is written with the Latin alphabet, known as quoc ngu (quốc ngữ) in Vietnamese.
Quoc ngu consists of 29 letters. These are: The 26 letters of the English alphabet minus f, j, w, and z.̣ (These letters are, however, found in foreign loanwords.). Letters of the alphabet Vietnamese characters. Here is the total set of characters for the lowercase letters. The little ₫ is just the Dong (Dollar) sign - most people just write VND for Vietnamese Dong - the currency of Vietnam.
Article on the historical origins of the land and nation of Viet Nam, from its early legends through the end of its imperial dynasties, and about the historical origins and linguistic characteristics of the Vietnamese .