If someone is unkind, it is because they are unaware of their own universal reason, which leads to the conclusion of unkindness. The solution to evil and unhappiness then is the practice of Stoic philosophy: The Stoics accepted that suicide was permissible for the wise person in circumstances that might prevent them from living a virtuous life.
To identify unique cultural vari- Jamy D. Ard, MD; Raegan W. Focus group discussions lasting 90 minutes. Outpatient, clinical research center. Twenty-six African-American men strated the effectiveness of lifestyle in- ture on health behaviors and attitudes and women, who completed the screening process but were ineligible for the PREMIER terventions for weight loss, blood pres- extends beyond food preferences to in- study, participated in six focus group sessions.
Partici- cardiovascular disease CVD risk fac- ture can directly affect the number of pants used a value sort of cultural character- tors than non-African Americans. The following seven tocols, and their acceptance of a lifestyle ed to a lack of efficacy of the given in- themes were consistently identified: Understanding the role sive use of nontraditional support systems; 2 general mistrust of European Americans; 3 Af- lations.
On the contrary, significant or inhibiting new behaviors in a clinical beings and members of American society; 4 evidence from subgroup analyses of trial setting may be helpful in improving effective use of improvisation; 5 uneven play- the outcomes of African Americans feeding studies such as DASH and ing field as a result of persistent discrimination; DASH-Sodium suggests that the effica- seeking to abolish unhealthy lifestyle 6 preservation of a unique ethnic identity; 7 socioeconomic status as a major influence and cy of a healthy dietary pattern is more habits and establish new, healthier predictor of behaviors.
Cultural variables can affect have struggled to demonstrate effective- plex issues such as culture is the focus African-American perceptions of the feasi- ness in the typical clinical trial setting group method.
Focus groups allow for bility of certain behavior modifications as for the African-American population. The focus that capitalize on certain cultural variables ture. Culture can logically be considered group method has been used extensively and avoid strategies that conflict with others.
African American, Clinical Trial, Culture, Focus Group pants who have varying levels of expe- rience or knowledge about the topic Address correspondence and reprint re- area, ranging from minimal to extensive.
Sessions were held for 90 minutes in verbal communication.
The partici- A questioning route was developed pants attended only one focus group and tested by using a pilot focus group discussion held at the Duke Hyperten- composed of African-American staff sion Center. Based on this experience, minor specific disease process or area of inter- discussions.
A novel approach to Participants cussion. Ineligible participants for PRE- ble 1. Participants were asked to rank ethnic minority. It also allows the inves- MIER were contacted by telephone or the top five characteristics that made tigative team to understand the poten- at the end of their screening session and them unique as African Americans com- tial cultural barriers that might be en- asked to attend the minute focus pared with other ethnic groups in this countered during implementation of all group.
Participants in this focus group country. The discussion proceeded aspects of a research protocol, including study were considered ineligible for the based on the characteristics selected by recruitment, intervention delivery, and PREMIER trial either because of blood the participants.
Probes were used to data collection, regardless of the disease pressure that was not in the specified elicit a better understanding of what process or behavioral intervention. At the conclu- focus groups that dealt with the unique- antihypertensive medications.
Catered sion of the discussion, the facilitator ness of African-American culture. At the start of tial screening forms for the PREMIER each focus group, the facilitator dis- study when available or after the com- cussed the purpose of the session, the pletion of the focus groups. Focus group discussion probes ticipants often commented that church Are there any specific beliefs or practices regarding religion?
Are your preferences for certain things food, clothing, entertainment, neighborhood, schools, pressure measured, get a good meal, so- friends based on the fact that you are African-American? The matriarchal fam- ily structure was clearly depicted, such dependently by three investigators JA, were grouped together based on unify- that the mother or grandmother is the LCE, RD.
Each investigator identified ing concepts. The African-American perspective of These comments were coded as cultural All investigators reached a consensus on family includes close friends or neigh- variables when agreed upon by at least the final set of themes. Once the primary set of RESULTS Participants expressed a feeling of variables was agreed upon, the variables kinship to all African Americans because A total of 26 persons participated in of common societal perceptions about the six focus groups.
Of the 26 partici- ethnicity.COMMUNIQUE #3 Haymarket Issue "I NEED ONLY MENTION in passing that there is a curious reappearance of the Catfish tradition in the popular Godzilla cycle of films which arose after the nuclear chaos unleashed upon Japan. Perception The process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting information.
is the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting information. This process, which is shown in Figure "The Perception Process", includes the perception of select stimuli that pass through our perceptual filters, are organized into our existing structures and patterns, and are then interpreted based on.
PERCEPTIONS OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN CULTURE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CLINICAL TRIAL DESIGN Objective: To identify unique cultural vari- Jamy D. Ard, MD; Raegan W. Durant, MD; ables for African Americans that might limit the effectiveness of behavioral interventions in Lori Carter Edwards, PhD; Laura P.
Svetkey, MD, MHS clinical trials. physiological arousal alone leads to the perception of emotion. According to the _____ theory of emotion, emotional experience is a reaction to to bodily events occurring as . Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.
It was heavily influenced by certain teachings of Socrates, while Stoic physics are largely drawn from the teachings of the philosopher metin2sell.comsm is predominantly a philosophy of personal ethics informed by its system of logic and its views on the natural world.
Body image is a person's perception of the aesthetics or sexual attractiveness of their own body. The phrase body image was first coined by the Austrian neurologist and psychoanalyst Paul Schilder in his book The Image and Appearance of the Human Body ().
Human society has at all times placed great value on beauty of the human body, but a person's perception of their own body may not.