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Writing[ edit ] Gregg shorthand is a system of phonography, or a phonetic writing system, which means it records the sounds of the speaker, not the English spelling. The system is written from left to right and the letters are joined.
Many of the letters shown are also brief forms, or standard abbreviations for the most common words for increased speed in writing. There are several others not shown, however. For instance, "please" is written in Simplified and back as simply pl,  and "govern" as gv. Based on the notion that lifting the pen between words would have a heavy speed cost, phrasing is the combination of several smaller distinct forms into one outline.
The vowels in Gregg shorthand are divided into groups that very rarely require further notation. Speeds of WPM where a word is 1.
However, left-handed writers can still write Gregg shorthand from left to right with considerable ease. Versions[ edit ] Throughout its history, different forms of Gregg shorthand have been published.
All the versions use the same alphabet and basic principles, but they differ in degrees of abbreviation and, as a result, speed. The version is generally the fastest and most abbreviated version.
Series 90 Gregg has the smallest degree of abbreviation, but it is also generally the slowest standard version of Gregg. Though each version differs in its level of abbreviation, most versions have expert and reporting versions for writers who desire more shortcuts.
Pre-Anniversary Gregg shorthand[ edit ] Gregg Shorthand was first published in by John Robert Gregg ; however, it was in a very primal stage, and therefore did not gain much success. Five years later, a much better version was published.
This version was published in a second edition inthen in a third edition titled "Gregg Shorthand" in The fourth edition, published indeveloped more shortcuts. The fifth edition, published inis the version most commonly referred to as "Pre-Anniversary" Gregg shorthand; this version has the largest number of brief forms, phrases, and shortcuts.
Gregg Shorthand Anniversary Edition[ edit ] In another version of Gregg shorthand was published. This system reduced the memory load on its learners by decreasing the number of brief forms and removing uncommon prefixes. It was intended to have been published in on the fortieth anniversary of the system, but it was published a year afterward due to a delay in its production.
This system drastically reduced the number of brief forms that needed to be memorized to only Even with this reduction in the number of brief forms, one could still reach speeds upward of WPM.
The system was simplified in order to directly address the need of business stenographers, who only needed to produce WPM transcription.
The creator of an advanced reporting version of Gregg Shorthand, Charles Lee Swem, wrote in The National Shorthand Reporter, "An abbreviated, simplified edition of our system has been published and accepted for the purpose of training office stenographers, and not necessarily reporters.
It is fundamentally the same system as we reporters learned from the Anniversary edition. Once Simplified is learned, the change-over to the reporting style is comparatively simple and can be made by any writer.
It was simpler than the Simplified version, and reduced the number of brief forms to For Diamond Jubilee students who wanted to increase speed for reporting, an edition of "Expert" Diamond Jubilee was available to push speeds upward.
Gregg Shorthand Series 90[ edit ] Series 90 — was an even simpler version, which used a minimal number of brief forms and placed a great emphasis on clear transcription, rather than reporting speed.
Although it introduced a couple of new abbreviations and reintroduced some short forms that were missing in Diamond Jubilee, it eliminated several other short forms, and was in the main simpler, longer, and slower than the previous editions. Gregg Shorthand Centennial Edition[ edit ] Published inthis is the most recent series of Gregg shorthand.
It was the only version since the Pre-anniversary edition of to increase the complexity of the system from the previous one, having brief forms. Other versions[ edit ] The above versions of Gregg shorthand were marketed for professional use, such as business and court reporting.
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Gregg Shorthand Junior Manual, designed for junior high school students, was published in and Shorthand Overview. Most traditional shorthand systems use a phonetic representation of a word as opposed to the way it is spelled.
English spelling has 50 speech sounds and 26 letters to represent them.
Abbreviations and symbols save time. They shorten words and phrases. For example an abbreviation or the word ‘paragraph’ is para.
It’s a good idea therefore for students to use them when writing short-hand notes quickly during lectures and from books and other resources.
A reader writes: I’ve been working at a small company (~30 employees) for almost a year. I am the lowest on the food chain, just above the interns. Abbreviations and acronyms are shortened forms of words or phrases.
An abbreviation is typically a shortened form of words used to represent the whole (such as Dr. or Prof.) while an acronym contains a set of initial letters from a phrase that usually form another word (such as radar or scuba).
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ORIGIN OF HANDLE. The term handle is an old slang term for name that goes back to the cowboys of the Old West.
Telegraphers picked it up and the ham radio operators got it from them. CB operators copied the hams. For Hams it can be either the operators first name or a nickname such as Sparks or Rusty.