Tony Hoffman August 16, at That being said, I would laugh out loud if I was in the audience and a Christian theist said that the God in the Bible is not relevant to the existence of God or objective moral values.
If Kant is correct that moral absolutes cannot be violated, then he prevents any loopholes, self-serving exceptions, and personal biases in the determination of our duties.
Intrinsic worth of a human being: Every human being is like a unique artistic creation, such as a Ming vase. A moral framework for rights: As a culture here in the U. Duties imply rights, and rights imply legitimate expectations. If every human has intrinsic worth as Kant believesthen every human should have the same rights, other things being equal.
Non-relativistic rights and duties: You need to point out inconsistencies within his system. Autonomy and ability to choose your moral projects: Can we ever be completely sure about the consequences of our actions?
Is the good will always good without qualification? Does this sound ethical? How can Kant deal with these hard cases?
Is this a good objection to Kant? Joe is terminally ill with some nasty cancer in the opinion of two doctors, and is in a lot of pain, at the legal limit of painkillers. Morality is feeling, affect, or sentiment. Suppose Kant is right that reason discovers moral duties.
We need to have action. Is reason sufficient to motivate us to do our duty? Suppose reason discovers Action A is a duty. In order to do Action A, do I need something else, such as a desire or an inclination to decide to do Action A, or is it enough to know that Action A is my duty?
In fact, for Hume, first we need a desire or an inclination to do something, then we look to reason to fulfill it. If it exists, then reason does not simply force us to do the right thing.
What about non-human animals? What about chimps that have a high percentage of our DNA structure? What about senile people or the comatose?
Are these people things as opposed to ends in themselves, as "normal" people are, according to Kant? We think it makes sense with common beliefs about morality.
So Utilitarianism gives us a system to our intuitions. Common sense that pain is bad, pleasure is good: Everything being equal, though people have many different and conflicting moral beliefs, people agree that pain is bad, and pleasure is good.
Utilitarianism requires us to balance our interests with those of others. Do not use this as your main reason why you like this theory - flipping a coin as Two Face in "The Dark Knight" is a simple ethical decision procedure, but that by itself does not make it a good theory].
Flexible and sensitive to circumstances Act and Rule: Utilitarianism does not rigidly label actions as absolutely right or wrong though certain actions like lying will in general be wrongand it allows flexibility and sensitivity to the circumstances surrounding an action.
This makes it practical. Act Utilitarianism is sensitive to the situation, but Rule Utilitarianism can be as well, as long as one can provide a rule that maximizes happiness in general, which also applies to this situation.IOANNES PAULUS PP.
II VERITATIS SPLENDOR. Blessing. Venerable Brothers in the Episcopate, Health and the Apostolic Blessing! The splendour of truth shines forth in all the works of the Creator and, in a special way, in man, created in the image and likeness of God (cf.
Gen ). Truth enlightens man's intelligence and shapes his freedom, leading him to know and love the Lord. Atheists often lose public debates with theists, especially when going up against heavyweights like William Lane Craig.. I don’t know of an atheist losing a debate to someone who denies evolution.
William David Ross (—) Sir William David Ross was a British philosopher, college administrator, WW I veteran, civil servant, and humanities scholar best known for his important contributions to moral philosophy and the study of classical literature.
In the field of classical studies, in addition to shorter works on Plato and Aristotle, his major triumph was his editorship of the.
Dylan Matthews writes a critique of effective metin2sell.com is much to challenge in it, and some has already been challenged by people like Ryan metin2sell.coms I will go into it at more length later.
Pluralists about ways of being say that there are multiple ways to be (e.g., substance and accident, divine being and finite being, the ten categories, or maybe even some indefinitely extendible list) and there is no such thing as being apart from being according to one of the ways of being.
The morality of transformational leadership has been sharply questioned, particularly by libertarians, “grass roots” theorists, and organizational development consultants.