Breast cancer case studies

Diagnosis is hard and that goes both ways.

Breast cancer case studies

Radiation Exposure Dietary Factors The relative effects of these and other risk factors in any given case of cancer is variable and very difficult to determine with accuracy at this time.

Some of these and other risk factors are discussed in the following sections. Prior History of Breast Disease History of breast cancer, regardless of the type, greatly increases an individual's risk for future development of breast cancer.

The second occurrence is most likely to be classified as invasive and ductal, rather than a lobular breast cancer. Family History of Breast Disease It is possible to inherit defective genes that lead to the development of a familial form of a particular cancer Breast cancer case studies.

Individuals with a family history of breast cancer are therefore at an increased risk of developing the disease.

Personal History of Breast Cancer That is really encouraging.
Breast Cancer Survival Rates: What you need to know. To determine whether hormone replacement therapy HRT after treatment for breast cancer is associated with increased risk of recurrence and mortality.

The degree of risk depends upon the type of relative affected. For example, risk is higher if an immediate family member has been diagnosed with breast cancer. Risk also increases with the number of relatives affected.

Race African American women are more likely to be diagnosed with early-onset before age 45 breast cancer compared to white American women.

Breast cancer case studies

This trend in incidence shifts, however, for women in their fifties. When comparing overall lifetime risk, African American women have a lower risk of developing breast cancer compared to white American women. Studies show that African American women have a greater chance of being diagnosed with high-grade and estrogen receptor ER -negative tumors.

Regardless of their lower overall lifetime risk of developing the disease, African American women have a significantly higher chance of dying from breast cancer than any other ethnic group in the United States.

One explanation for the disparity is the socioeconomic differences that exist between ethnic groups. In this view, limited access to health care and clinical trials and the high cost of treatments may account for the higher African American breast cancer death rate.

New investigations focused on biological differences, however, suggest that African Americans may develop tumors that are harder to treat. Reproductive and Menstrual History Exposure to estrogen is associated with increased breast cancer risk.

For this reason, women who experience menarche begin their menstrual cycle before age 12 and the onset of menopause at age 55 or older are at an increased risk of developing breast cancer.

During pregnancy, maternal hormone levels change drastically. Studies show that some of these hormones may provide anti-estrogen effects, protecting individuals from the negative effects of estrogen. Examples of proteins thought to impact cancer risk include: Alpha-fetoprotein is a glycoprotein produced by the liver of a developing fetus.

Since the protein is at its highest level during the third trimester, a pregnancy that is not carried to full term may not provide a protective effect. Human chorionic gonadotropin is a hormone produced by the placenta during pregnancy.

The protein is elevated during the first trimester of pregnancy. Experiments with breast cancer cells suggest that the effects of hCG may partially explain the higher rate of breast cancer among nulliparous non-child bearing women.

HRT may include treatment with estrogen alone or a combination of both estrogen and progesterone. Studies indicate that use of menopausal hormone therapy, currently or within the past five years, is associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer.

The actual impact of HRT on breast cancer risk is still under investigation. Exposure to Diethylstilbestrol Diethylstilbestrol DES is a man-made estrogen that was prescribed between and to treat complications associated with pregnancy.

Women who ingested this chemical during their pregnancy are at a slightly increased risk of developing breast cancer. Female offspring of women who were exposed to DES have a higher incidence of reproductive problems and cancers of the vagina and cervix.

Women irradiated at a young age before age of 30 are at an increased risk of developing breast cancer later in life compared to older women. Advances in therapeutic radiation techniques have resulted in the use of lower doses of radiation and exposure of smaller regions of the body.

Such advances will hopefully reduce breast cancer risk due to irradiation therapy in years to come.

Breast cancer case studies

Factors that may increase breast cancer risk include high fat intake, high alcohol consumption, and a diet rich in overcooked meats. Heterocyclic amines are chemicals formed in the cooking process of meat products such as fish, beef, pork, and chicken.A year-old Caucasian woman presented to her primary care physician with a 3-month history of intermittent bright red rectal blood with defecation.

the nurse confirms that Sandra has signed the informed consent for surgery, but learns that Sandra does not understand the procedure for breast reconstruction that is to be performed.

notify the surgeon that further explanation of the procedure is necessary. May 22,  · Breast cancer is the most common cancer among American women.; One in every eight women in the United States develops breast cancer.; There are many types of breast cancer that differ in their capability of spreading (metastasize) to other body causes of breast cancer are not yet fully known, although a number of risk factors have been identified.

Published Evidence Contradicts Medical Advic e. Most health care practitioners remain unaware that most published medical literature shows breast cancer patients taking HRT actually experienced equal or better survival than patients not taking hormones. See studies below from the most prestigious medical journals.

Nov 20,  · If you are diagnosed with breast cancer while pregnant, your treatment options will be more complicated because you will want to get the best treatment for your cancer . Breast cancer news, research and clinical study results to allow oncologists and other medical professionals to stay informed on breast tumor research, mammogram clinical results, HER2 and BRCA.

Breast cancer - Wikipedia