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The principal methods of networking that enable the Internet are contained in specially designated RFCs that constitute the Internet Standards. Other less rigorous documents are simply informative, experimental, or historical, or document the best current practices BCP when implementing Internet technologies.
The Internet standards describe a framework known as the Internet protocol suite. The layers correspond to the environment or scope in which their services operate. At the top is the application layerspace for the application-specific networking methods used in software applications.
For example, a web browser program uses the client-server application model and a specific protocol of interaction between servers and clients, while many file-sharing systems use a peer-to-peer paradigm.
Below this top layer, the transport layer connects applications on different hosts with a logical channel through the network with appropriate data exchange methods. Underlying these layers are the networking technologies that interconnect networks at their borders and exchange traffic across them.
The Internet layer enables computers "hosts" to identify each other via Internet Protocol IP addressesand route their traffic to each other via any intermediate transit networks.
Last, at the bottom of the architecture is the link layerwhich provides logical connectivity between hosts on the same network link, such as a local area network LAN or a dial-up connection.
Other models have been developed, such as the OSI modelthat attempt to be comprehensive in every aspect of communications. While many similarities exist between the models, they are not compatible in the details of description or implementation.
As user data is processed through the protocol stack, each abstraction layer adds encapsulation information at the sending host. Data is transmitted over the wire at the link level between hosts and routers.
Encapsulation is removed by the receiving host.
Intermediate relays update link encapsulation at each hop, and inspect the IP layer for routing purposes. The most prominent component of the Internet model is the Internet Protocol IPwhich provides addressing systems, including IP addressesfor computers on the network.
IP enables internetworking and, in essence, establishes the Internet itself. Internet Protocol Version 4 IPv4 is the initial version used on the first generation of the Internet and is still in dominant use. However, the explosive growth of the Internet has led to IPv4 address exhaustionwhich entered its final stage in when the global address allocation pool was exhausted.
A new protocol version, IPv6, was developed in the mids, which provides vastly larger addressing capabilities and more efficient routing of Internet traffic. IPv6 is currently in growing deployment around the world, since Internet address registries RIRs began to urge all resource managers to plan rapid adoption and conversion.
In essence, it establishes a parallel version of the Internet not directly accessible with IPv4 software. Thus, translation facilities must exist for internetworking or nodes must have duplicate networking software for both networks.
Essentially all modern computer operating systems support both versions of the Internet Protocol. Network infrastructure, however, has been lagging in this development.One of the most common and probably one of the most effective techniques used by retail businesses to attract shoppers is offering festive discounts.
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